Normally, food in the stomach becomes glucose or sugar. Sugar enters the bloodstream from the stomach. The pancreas secretes the insulin hormone that causes glucose enter to cells. As a result, blood glucose levels remain balanced. In diabetes, the insulin of blood is not enough or the existing insulin is not able to work properly.
By this action, blood sugar cannot effectively enter the cells of the body. And its value goes up. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the beta cells located in the pancreas. Insulin hormones lowers the blood glucose levels. The pancreas is also one of the digestive glands located behind the stomach. High levels of high blood glucose can cause complications in the cardiovascular, kidney, eye and nervous system.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes:
Generally, is categorized into four types of type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types. In type 1, contain 15% of total types, insulin production stops by insulin-forming cells. Hence, patients with type1 inject insulin to body daily. Also called “insulin-dependent “. Type 1 often occurs up to 30 years old people, so it’s called “diabetes mellitus”.
Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 2 occurs in adults over 30 years old with overweight. Such disease contain 85-90% of total diabetes. Insulin produced from the pancreas does not work properly. In fact, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or that insulin secretion is lacking due to the resistance of the cells to insulin, especially in obese people. This type is also referred to as “non-insulin-dependent ” or “adult diabetes”.
3. Gestational diabetes:
Gestational is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. This type of diabetes is usually transient and improves after the completion of pregnancy. Women with gestational are at high risk for type 2.
Control principles of disease makes able to have a healthy life and prevent complications from disease.
Training, daily control, proper nutrition, physical activity and regular use of medications (pills or insulin injections).
Type 1 combine with symptoms such as thirst, urination, stuffy, weight loss, hunger and severe fatigue. Most of people with type 2 (about 50%) are unaware of their disease and can only diagnose their disease by testing their blood glucose. However, in the absence of optimal control, it may show similar symptoms to type 1.
There is a lot of research on the prevention of type 1, but there is still no definitive solution to prevent it. But in the case of type 2, research has clearly shown that proper nutrition and weight loss of 5-7% of the current weight, as well as regular exercise (150 minutes per week) in preventing disease.
Hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia) and its treatment
Hypo hypoglycemia (HYPOGLYCEMIA) or decreased blood glucose is the most important problem that occurs in diabetes, often due to insulin therapy.
The main causes of hypoglycemia are:
- Inject a high dose of insulin or take some blood glucose lowering drugs such as sulfonylureas and MEGLITINIDES. Other drugs, such as alpha-glycosidase inhibitors, benignant and THIAZOLIDINEDIONES, may also cause hypoglycemia when taken with other medicines.
- Increase physical activity or exercise
- Delaying meals or removing meals
- Consumption of small meals.
- High alcohol consumption